三月 24th, 2019  |  风俗习惯


www.463.com永利皇宫 1Handbook
Of Chinese Mythology (World Mythology)

A Field Study on Defining Oral Genres:

www.463.com永利皇宫 2

  Further Study on Mythical Realm: New Ideas of Living Myth, by Li
Zixian, Kunming, Yunnan Peoples Publishing House, 2016, 397+pp.,
RMB89.00, ISBN 9787222150287

by Lihui Yang and Deming An, with Jessica Anderson Turner

Xa33pa31inYuanjiang Hani People as a Case

Wen Jun and his research team offer post-disaster social support to the
victims in the Ludian earthquake area in Yunnan Province.

  Since 1962, Li Zixian has consistently conducted research and
fieldwork on mythology. His new monograph on mythology, Further Study on
Mythical Realm: New Ideas of Living Myth, has five chapters, covering
primordialism, morphology, evolution, ecology, and comparison of myths.
It discusses the definition, forms of existence, evolution and contexts
of myths, and study cases about myths from Yi, Dulong, Hani, Wa, and
other ethnic groups. The monograph is based on the author’s fieldwork of
myths in the past 50 years and includes more than 100 related field
pictures taken by the author.

Product DetailsHardcover: 293 pages Publisher: ABC-CLIO (August 30,
2005) Language: English ISBN-10: 157607806X ISBN-13: 978-1576078068
Product Dimensions: 10.1 x 6.9 x 0.9 inches


As 2014 came to an end, members of China’s philosophy and social
sciences circles expressed optimism for prospects in the coming year. In
this new year, what issues will they pay attention to, and what kind of
academic research will they conduct?

  According to Li Zixian, the living myth refers to forms of existence
of myths, which can be reasonably integrated with other elements of the
cultural-ecological system, especially religious beliefs. Its existence
depends on unbroken related folk beliefs, which are still the holy basis
of community life and whose inheritance environment still exists. This
idea enables the book to shake off previous text interpretation-based
mythological study by demonstrating the myths in their dependent
cultural-ecological system. The correlation between living myth and
cultural-ecological system, symmetrical or asymmetric, is a significant
measure of the survival rate of myth. Changes occurring in the
cultural-ecological system, especially in the belief and value systems
will inevitably alter the living myth. The author’s elaboration on this
correlation provides an analytical framework of reference, particularly
in the context of contemporary society where different contexts and the
incidence of media are much higher. This analytical framework offers
greater instructive value.


The present thesis consists of five parts: introduction, three chapters,
and conclusion. There are 26 pictures as illustrations, bibliography and
excerpts of field interviews, field report, fieldnotes as appendices.

Theoretical research based on practice In order to learn about the
latest trends in academia and detail the efforts of Chinese scholars to
explore today’s most pressing theoretical and practical problems, China
Social Sciences Today contacted professor Wen Jun from the School of
Social Development at East China Normal University in Shanghai, who had
just returned from the site of the Ludian earthquake in Yunnan Province.

  Due to the nature of living myth, the research in this book is based
on the authors fieldwork. As a result, important issues like adjustment
of myth in the context of contemporary society, nationality of myth, and
the relation between myth and ritual are displayed. The fieldwork
provides some new data and problematique such as the finding that there
is no ancestral temple or statues in the traditional culture of the Yi.
In Laole, a Yi village in Kaiyuan of Yunnan Province, the author found
the only preserved human ancestral temple of brother-sister marriage of
ethnic groups in southwest China.

Every year, at the Wa Huang Gong temple in Hebei Province, China, people
gather to worship the great mother, Nuwa, the oldest deity in Chinese
myth, praising her for bringing them a happy life. It is a vivid
demonstration of both the ancient reach and the continuing relevance of
mythology in the lives of the Chinese people.Compiled from ancient and
scattered texts and based on groundbreaking new research, Handbook of
Chinese Mythology is the most comprehensive English-language work on the
subject ever written from an exclusively Chinese perspective. This work
focuses on the Han Chinese people but ranges across the full spectrum of
ancient and modern China, showing how key myths endured and evolved over
time. A quick reference section covers all major deities, spirits, and
demigods, as well as important places (Kunlun Mountain), mythical
animals and plants (the crow with three feet; Fusang tree), and related
items (Xirang-a kind of mythical soil; Bu Si Yao-mythical medicine for
long life). No other work captures so well what Chinese mythology means
to the people who lived and continue to live their lives by it.With more
than 40 illustrations and photographs, fresh translations of primary
sources, and insight based on the authors’ own field research, Handbook
of Chinese Mythology offers an illuminating account of a fascinating
corner of the world of myth. Product Details

In introduction, the author mainly discusses the followings: 1)
problematic issues of the study; 2) perspectives of field study and case
study; 3) descriptions of fieldwork process and documentations. In order
to avoid underlying risks, considering limitations of the topic and
field sites, the author also specifies the coverage of the thesis.

“Our team’s mission is to enhance victims’ self-help and mutual
assistance capabilities and to rebuild the post-disaster social support
system by utilizing professional methods and techniques, as well as
exploring new approaches to conducting post-disaster emergency social
work,” he said.

  Besides the living myth, the book divides myths into written myths
and oral myths. Written myth refers to the myth that exists in written
works, which is an essential reference system of the research on living
myth. Oral myth refers to the myth that survives through word of mouth,
which erases its ritual function and strengthens the narrative function.
Meanwhile, entertainment and esthetic functions derive from oral myth.
This distinction breaks the limitation of sacredness as the only
standard for myths, while granting legitimacy to other forms of
existence and expanding the horizon of mythological study.

312 pages; 40 halftones & line illus.; 6-1/8 x 9-1/4; ISBN13:
978-0-19-533263-6ISBN10: 0-19-533263-6

Chapter one is entitled “Overview of Xapa Studies in China.” The oral
genre Xapa, as one of the most important verbal arts among the Hani
people, has always been in lacking for semantic analysis by scholars. As
a result, the Chinese academia has not yet reached an agreement on which
genre it should be attached to. Meanwhile, there are scarcely scholars
focusing on Xapa outside Chinese academia. Considering it, the author
tries to find out defects of previous researches by tracing back the
short twenty-year history of Xapa studies from today to early 1980s in
China. The result shows that, most prevailing issues are rendered in
early 1980s, and since that, nearly all issues fall into the same
pattern; in addition, Xapa genre has been categorized as folk music or
folk quyi among the Hani people, instead of a specific oral tradition in
past decades of scholarship.

“Since September 2014, we have already conducted large amounts of field
research at earthquake-stricken areas, collecting lots of primary data.
In 2015, we will further improve the country’s emergency relief system
by combining the current research situation of social work theories at
home and abroad and China’s practice of social work,” said Wen.

  In previous studies of Chinese mythology myth, used to be treated as
the lingering traces of primitive society or in decontextualized and
text-centered study approaches, the carrier of the study objects tends
to be textualized mythical narrative. In this manner, an abstract formal
system was thought to be established through intensive comparison among
texts handed down from the past and of different regions to obtain some
generalized conclusions. By contrast, the academic meaning of this book
is to take myths as a narrative tradition of people’s daily life and
focuses on its function and significance.

About the Author(s)

The title of chapter two is ”Semantic Analysis of Xapa.” This chapter
deals with interpretations of the word Xapa (previous interpretations
given by a Hani language translator is not convincing and far from
theoretical generalization). Based on semantic element analysis
developed in linguistics, as well as theories of pragmatics and
Ethnopoetics, the author tries to interpret the key word Xapa in
ethnographical context of folk-discourse system, traditional knowledge,
and indigenous terminologies. However, on account of the interpretation
is a systematic work which requiring ethnographic situated study in
relation to the process of defining Xapa as a whole, the semantic
analysis certainly will be extended to local notions of oral genre and
its taxonomy.

Like Wen, Ding Shijun, dean of the School of Public Administration at
Zhongnan University of Economics and Law in Wuhan, Hubei Province, has
also shifted his focus to grass-roots practice.

  The book positions the myths of the Yi, Hani, Wa, and other ethnic
groups in Yunnan province within the broad environment of East Asia, as
well as drawing comparisons with the myths of Taiwanese aborigines, Jeju
Island, and Okinawa. Such a framing allows the author to outline a
U-shape culture zone linking Wa in Yunnan with the Taiwanese aborigines,
across Indochina, Indonesia, and Philippines. Myth system in these areas
is the string that links this culture zone. Such a positioning allows
the author to hypothesize that the Wa’s habitation area and its
surrounding areas might be the origin of this culture zone. These
studies are made in such a way that these myths are first classified,
compared, summarized, and then investigated under circumstances of
religious beliefs, folk life, social economy, ethnic history, and ethnic
relations. Finally, it comes back to the topic of myths again.

Lihui Yang is Professor of Folklore and Mythology at the College of
Chinese Language and Literature at Beijing Normal University. Deming An
is Professor and Senior Researcher at the Institute of Literature,
Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, Beijing. Jessica Anderson Turner is
a Ph.D. Candidate in the Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology at
Indiana University, Bloomington, Indiana.

In chapter three entitled “Boundaries of Xapa as an Oral Genre”, the
author attempts to give further interpretations of Xapa as an oral
genre. Through panoramic views of oral traditions in Yuanjiang County,
applying the “SPEAKING model” developed by Dell Hymes, the author takes
oral genre Xapa into accounts in terms of local system of
categorizations, notices that the genre could be categorized into
different genres according to different performing contexts;
furthermore, it also contains the following subgenres –ballads, folk
songs, narrative songs, ritual songs, etc. Given a fact that the genre
Xapa covers all singing traditions in Yuanjiang areas, the author
inclines to define the genre as a whole, or as an inter-genre
conception—to define Xapa as a conception against the narrative
tradition, namely “oral songs” which bore by local Hani people, then,
use the locally and popularly used word Xapa to refer to this special
literary tradition. At the end of chapter three, the author defines Xapa
as the following formulation: Xapa=the Hani people+rhyme+ traditional
and cultural rules+singer, audience, performing context and free
limitations of performing sites+no accompaniment.

“I will conduct my research revolving around famers’ livelihood
reconstruction in the context of changing of land use,” said Ding,
adding that his research team has conducted field research of 900
household peasants in Jiujiang of Jiangxi Province, Xiangyang of Hubei
Province and Kunming of Yunnan Province.

  Overall, this book has adequately demonstrated the integrity,
comprehensiveness, and dynamics of the living myth. Although the author
viewed living myth as a typical mythical form and somehow overlooked
other myths of forms of existence, this book is worth reading for
mythology researchers, particularly those interested in myths of ethnic
group in Southwest China.

Editorial Reviews

In conclusion, the author invites reflections on classification of oral
genres. As the present thesis indicates, there have been controversies
on classification of oral genres in academic world to extent that the
uncertainties of knowledge itself seem to be problematic. Moreover, the
theoretical system of oral genres not only failed to cover perplexing
existence of ethnic oral genres, but also lacked for a holistic analysis
of working out taxonomic principles. However, the author urges us to
make clarity between two fundamental issues: 1) determining folk song or
folk quyi as our object of research? 2) formulating our judgments on
local terminologies or academic terminologies? The author claims that,
only discovering the tie between orality and music, we could approach
the original form. of oral traditions according to ethnographic data,
and then we could build up a channel between academic expressions and
indigenous folklore.

www.463.com永利皇宫,Fu Ping, a professor at the College of Sociology at Central China Normal
University in Wuhan, Hubei Province, said he plans to analyze the crises
facing Chinese enterprises in the context of economic globalization in

  Notes on contributor

From School Library Journal

The genre Xapa is one of the most important verbal arts of the Hani
People. Due to shortage of written sources in Hani society, and
variations of verbal arts in the process of transmission, some basic
aspects in defining Xapa still remain unclear, no matter in traditional
communities or in academia. Rooted in indigenous oral traditions, the
thesis focuses on a case study carried out in Hani traditional villages
in order to probe into the notion of local genres, discusses mainly on
boundaries of Xapa as a cross-genre and deal with the long existing
difficulties over it. The thesis devotes to bridge the gap between
academic canons and indigenous ideas through interpreting issues derived
from Xapa, and re-examining academic classification over oral
traditional genres in China. All explorations and reflections over
taxonomic approach of verbal genres unfolding in the thesis might
provide a helpful case study for ethnic oral tradition studies as a

  1. In addition, Fu also said that he will try to clarify some issues
    related to the relationship between culture and market, exploring the
    influence of culture on market practice and its role in coordinating
    economic activities.

  Gao Jian is post-doc at College of Chinese Language and Literature,
Yunnan University, China. He devoted to doing the research of oral
tradition of the Wa, especially the Si Mgang Līh. He theorizes the Si
Mgang Līh as a speech event, gives attention to performer, formula,
social relations, folklore process.

Grade 9 Up–An authoritative, but not comprehensive, resource. The
authors have drawn on many works in Mandarin as well as extant scholarly
texts in English. They discuss sources and treatments of Chinese myths
in the past and present, offering an overview of the interaction between
myth and society. Surveying Chinese history and the history of the study
of myths, the authors identify some areas for future scholarship. They
provide a chronology of Chinese dynasties and include non-Han minorities
in their discussions. The writing is clear and correct (though the
Weaving Maiden is said to wed a cowboy), if not inspired. An extensive
annotated bibliography cites selected Internet and video as well as
print resources. The index is detailed. Although entries on dragons and
on culture-heroes are fascinating, users will look in vain for Guanyin,
Monkey (Sun Wukong), Yen Lo Wang, Feng Du, Yuan Shi Tian Zong, Guan Yu,
and other folk and Taoist gods. This book should expand students ideas
about the extent and significance of Chinese myths, but the absence of
many myths that are known, even if imperfectly, in the West will limit
its usefulness.–Patricia D. Lothrop, St. Georges School, Newport, RI

Keywords: the Hani People-oral tradition-Xapa-field study-semantic
analysis-boundaries of genre

New academic growth points “The studies of basin anthropology will
become one of the new academic growth points for the development of
anthropology and ethnology in China,” said Tian Qian, dean of the School
of History and Culture at Southwest University in Chongqing.

  Authors postal address: College of Chinese Language and Literature
at Yunnan University, No.2, North Cuihu Ave, Kunming 650091, China

Copyright © Reed Business Information, a division of Reed Elsevier Inc.
All rights reserved.

Tian discussed the achievements attained by his research team in
studying regional ethnic relations that took one basin as a unit when
examining intangible cultural heritage protection.

  Gao Jian

From BooklistInformation about Chinese mythology has been limited by
language and access to primary sources. This volume attempts to fill a
gap by providing a resource written in English by Chinese mythologists.
The wife and husband team of Lihui Yang and Deming An, who were research
fellows in the Department of Folklore and Ethnomusicology at Indiana
University in Bloomington, have studied Chinese mythology extensively.
Yang teaches mythology at Beijing Normal University. The introduction
comprises about a quarter of the volume and provides an in-depth look at
Chinese mythology as a whole. It explains the difficulty of researching
these myths, the most obvious being that no integrated system of myths
exists among the 56 ethnic groups in China. Some myths are recorded in
ancient writings and artifacts (such as vessels, shells, or bones), and
some are transmitted only orally. The main sources are described, and
commonalities of myths across China are noted. The history and cultural
context of these myths are then detailed.

“On this basis, we will pursue a more advanced methodology and plan to
hold the first session of workshops on basin anthropology in China to
build the talent pool for conducting the collaborative innovation of
basin anthropology in the future,” he added.

  College of Chinese Language and Literature, Yunnan University,
Kunming, China

The dictionary portion of the work describes 70 deities, themes, and
concepts. Most entries are about two pages long, although they vary in
length from a page to almost 10 pages (for Shennong, the Divine Farmer).
Most of the entries treat figures (largely unknown to Western readers),
but a few describe mythological concepts and places such as elixir of
Immortality and Kunlun Mountain. Entries note definitions, sources of
information, stories, and the role of each myth, and most include
cross-references and bibliographic information. Black-and-white
illustrations and photographs dot the book. An appendix offers an
annotated list of print, video, and Web resources about Chinese
mythology. A detailed index concludes the volume.

This year, Hong Xiuping from the Department of Philosophy at Nanjing
University will also finish a key project of philosophy and social
sciences titled “Education Collection of 100 Buddhist Studies,” which is
sponsored by the Ministry of Education. A series of books on Buddhist
studies will be published. Hong will continue research on the
relationship between Buddhist studies and social revolution while
exploring the utilization of new materials and methods to provide a
reference for current academic innovation.


Although it is not well illustrated, this volume provides useful
information to the reader. The authors’ credibility and in-depth
scholarship offer a rare opportunity to experience Chinese mythology
through Chinese eyes. Recommended for academic and large public
libraries. Lesley FarmerCopyright © American Library Association. All
rights reserved

Li Huarui from the School of History at Capital Normal University in
Beijing will focus on the Chinese philosopher Mencius (372-289 BC) and
society in the Song Dynasty (960-1279), probing how literati and
officialdom rebuilt the social order based on Mencius’s ideas and the
practice of Mencius’s benevolent government theory in the Song Dynasty.

由北师范大学哲高校杨利慧教授与中国社科院安德明副研究员商员合著、并诚邀美利坚联邦合众国风俗学博士生杰西卡安德森 特纳负责英文校正的《中夏族民共和国传说手册》(Handbook of Chinese
Mythology),于2007年6月由United StatesABC-CLIO出版集团出版发行。那是中中原人民共和国风俗学者撰写的首先部英文中华夏族民共和国传说专书。

“The studies of history of the Song Dynasty will represent a series of
new research directions, including the nation and society, political
culture as well as extension and new interpretations of literature of
the Song Dynasty,” he added.

Philosophy and social sciences undertake the historical mission of
promoting the construction of socialism with Chinese characteristics and
realizing the rejuvenation of the Chinese nation, said Wang Zongli, a
professor at the School of Marxism at Northwest Normal University in
Lanzhou, Gansu Province, adding that he will conduct research on the new
missions of philosophy and social sciences during the process of the
great rejuvenation of the Chinese nation in 2015.

In addition, a large number of projects were also approved in 2014 that
demonstrate the mission of philosophy and social sciences to serve the
nation and its people. For example, major projects sponsored by the
National Social Sciences Fund will mainly explore the great theories of
the Communist Party of China, Chinese traditional culture and the
significant theoretical and practical issues related to national and
social development.

来源| Chinese Social Sciences Today 编辑|戴勇  读书原来的小说


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