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美洲土著居民及其文化www.463.com,系列节目概况

六月 14th, 2019  |  www.463.com

第1集 – 《建国史话》体系节目概略

第4集 – 美洲土著居民及其文化

第5集 – 澳洲移民和印第安人的抵触

第2集 – 先前时代澳洲探险家的传说

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION — American history in VOA Special
English.

Welcome to THE MAKING OF A NATION — American history in VOA Special
English. I’m Shirley Griffith.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

In the United States, October ninth is observed as Leif Erickson Day. It
honors the Norse explorer who sailed around the northeastern coast of
what we now call North America about one thousand years ago. Leif
Erickson and his crew returned home to Greenland with news of a place he
called “Vinland.”

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

在美利坚联邦合众国,七月9号是莱弗·埃里克松日,回想那位一千年前就曾环绕北美大洲东南沿海的北欧航海家。利夫·Eric松回到故乡格陵兰岛后报告说,他到了四个叫”vinland”的地点。

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

And this is Sarah Long with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States. Today, we tell
about early Native Americans.

And this is Ray Freeman with the MAKING OF A NATION, a VOA Special
English program about the history of the United States.

Following his explorations, a few settlements were built. Experts
digging in eastern Canada in the nineteen sixties found the remains of a
village with houses like those in Greenland, Iceland and Norway. But the
Norse did not establish any permanent settlements in North America.

The Lincoln Memorial in Washington, D.C.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE ONE:

新兴,北美次大陆上面世过一些定居点。考古专家二十世纪六十时期在加拿大南部开采了四个聚落的遗址,里面包车型大巴屋宇带有格陵兰岛、冰岛和挪威的个性。可是北欧人并从未在北美营造长久性的定居点。

And I’m Steve Ember. Today history repeats itself. We start our series
over again. The last time we were at the beginning was in February of
two thousand three.

Scientists believe that the native peoples of America came here
thousands of years ago during the last ice age. These people settled the
land from the cold northern areas to the extreme end of South America.

Our story today is a sad one. It is the story of a clash of peoples,
religions, ideas, and cultures. It is a story of strongly held ideas and
a lack of compromise.

Today, as we launch our series from the beginning again, Sarah Long and
Rich Kleinfeldt tell the story of early European explorers in North
America.

VOICE ONE:

地管理学家感觉,美洲的本地人居民是上千年前在最终贰个冰河时期来到美洲次大陆的。考古学家从寒冷的西边所在到南美洲的最南面,都找到过她们的脚踩过的印迹。

今日我们要描述一段令人痛定思痛的传说。

下边,让大家联合来听听开始的一段时期澳大火奴鲁鲁联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)探险家的传说。

THE MAKING OF A NATION has a loyal following. In fact, listener research
finds it the most popular weekly program in VOA Special English.

As the groups of people settled different parts of the land, they
developed their own languages, their own cultures and their own
religions. Each group’s story is important in the history of the
Americas. However, it is perhaps the tribes of the central part of the
United States that are most recognized. They will be our story today.

It is the story of the relations between Europeans and the natives who
had lived for thousands of years in the area we now call North America.

VOICE TWO:

It started in May of nineteen sixty-nine. Some people can remember when
THE MAKING OF A NATION was on the radio two times a week. People who
grew up listening to it are old enough now to listen with their own
children, or even their grandchildren.

居住在不相同地段的土著人居民,成立了本人非常的语言、文化和宗派。每一种土著部落的传说,都是美洲野史的第一组成都部队分,可是最佳后人承认的,依然那几个在明日的美利坚合众国中段定居的本地人部落。

澳大萨尔瓦多(Australia)居民来到北美大洲后,跟在这里生活了成百上千年的本地人居民用爆破发争执,二者的宗派、信仰和文化差别产生了刚烈的摩擦。

About ten hundred, Europe was beginning a period of great change. One
reason was the religious wars known as the crusades. These wars were
efforts by Europeans who were mainly Roman Catholic Christians. They
wanted to force Muslims out of what is now the Middle East. The crusades
began at the end of the eleventh century. They continued for about two
hundred years.

The series tells a story. You can think of it not just as a series of
programs about the history of America and its people, but a series of
lessons. The subjects include exploration, revolution, civil war, social
and political change, the rise of industry and modern technology, and
more.

VOICE TWO:

美洲土著居民及其文化www.463.com,系列节目概况。VOICE TWO:

公元一千年左右,亚洲初叶巨变,当中三个要害原因正是被称做十字军东征的宗派战役。亚洲的拉各斯天主教教徒希望把穆斯林赶出现在的中东地区。十字军东征是十一世纪末起先的,前后持续大致两百余年。

开国史话讲述了五个关于美国野史和赤子的故事,从探求新陆地,到独立战役、南北大战、再到社政变迁,以及工业和今世科学技术的勃兴。

In eighteen-oh-four, Merriwether Lewis and William Clark led a group of
explorers to the Pacific Ocean. They were the first educated Americans
to see some of the native tribes of the Great Plains. And they were the
first white people these Native American people had ever seen.

Many different Native American groups lived on the East Coast of what
would become United States. They spoke many different languages. Some
were farmers, some were hunters. Some fought many wars, others were
peaceful.

The presence of European armies in the Middle East increased trade,
which was controlled by businessmen in Venice and other Italian
city-states. The businessmen were earning large profits by transporting
and supplying the warring armies.

VOICE TWO:

1804年,Lewis和Clark教导的探险队到了印度洋。他们是看看大平原地区土著部落的第一群受过教育的意大利人,也是本地人第三回探望的黄人。

在后天的北美陆地西部沿海,也正是今后U.S.随处的地方,居住着多数印第安人的部落,他们讲差异的语言,有些从事农耕,有个别以狩猎为生,有个别四处出征打战,有个别则热爱和平。

亚洲军旅在中东地区的出现推动了交易发展。威哈里斯堡等地的意大利共和国商贾通过为战役各方运输和提供物资,大发战役财。

We ended last week at program number two hundred thirty-eight. The
subject was the presidential election of two thousand four. As time adds
to the story, we add new programs to the series.

When the group of explorers neared the eastern side of the great Rocky
Mountains, they met with a tribe of Indians called the Shoshoni.
Merriwether Lewis was the first to see them.

These groups are called tribes. Their names are known to most
Americans…the Senecas, the Mohawks, the Seminole, the Cherokee to name
only a few.

When the European crusaders returned home, they brought with them some
new and useful products. The products included spices, perfumes, silk
cloth, steel products and drugs. Such products became highly valued all
over Europe. Increased trade resulted which led to the growth of towns.
It also created a large number of rich European businessmen.

In a sense, THE MAKING OF A NATION is a living history. Yet some of the
announcers are no longer even alive after all these years.

Let us imagine we are with Merriwether Lewis near the Rocky Mountains
almost two hundred years ago. Across a small hill, a group of sixty
Shoshoni men are riding toward us.

那一个群众体育多数一而再到现在,在那之中囊括塞讷卡人、莫霍克人、西米诺尔人和彻罗基人等等。

十字军重临澳洲时,带回了中东地区的香料、香水、天鹅绒、钢铁和药物,成为澳洲火爆的卖得快品。贸易带来了乡镇的起来,也培养了一大批判有着的亚洲厂商。

Here and there, too, the language may sound a little dated. For example,
some of the programs call black people Negroes. The use of that term may
be historically correct, but today the socially accepted name is
African-American.

Lewis和Clark等人到达落基新疆侧的时候,大概六十三个肖肖尼土著居民正骑马向他们走来。他们活跃地记载了马上的气象。

VOICE ONE:

The European nations were growing. They developed armies and
governments. These had to be paid for by taxes from the people. By the
fifteenth century, European countries were ready to explore new parts of
the world.

Technology has also changed. Today THE MAKING OF A NATION is not just on
radio but also on the Internet. At www.unsv.com, you can download MP3
files and transcripts. That way you can listen anytime or anyplace —
and read along. The site also includes archives, in case you ever miss a
program.

VOICE ONE:

These tribes had developed their own cultures many years before the
first European settlers arrived. Each had a kind of religion, a strong
spiritual belief. Many tribes shared a similar one.

亚洲国家的技术不断扩充,他们设置了军旅和当局,靠纳税义务人交纳的税款来保险。到十五世纪的时候,澳洲国家已经捋臂将拳,做好了出门探险的预备。

VOICE ONE:

The first thing we see is that these men are ready for war. Each is
armed with a bow and arrows. Some carry long poles with a sharp knife on
the end.

首先批亚洲移民过来北美次大陆在此之前的许多年,那么些印第安人群众体育就已经济建设立起了各自的文化和信教。

VOICE ONE:

So how was the nation made? Why did loyal citizens rebel against one
nation and start their own, with different laws? THE MAKING OF A NATION
answers these and other questions about American history.

我们的率先反响是,那些人早就做好了战争的备选。他们都佩有反曲弓,还有些人拿着下面插着尖刀的竹竿。

The Indians on the East Coast shared a highly developed system of trade.
Researchers say different tribes of Native Americans traded goods all
across the country.

The first explorers were the Portuguese. By fourteen hundred, they
wanted to control the Eastern spice trade. European businessmen did not
want to continue paying Venetian and Arab traders for their costly
spices. They wanted to set up trade themselves. If they could sail to
Asia directly for these products, the resulting trade would bring huge
profits.

We tell the story of how a group of farmers, businessmen and lawyers
wrote a document they called the Constitution of the United States. On
September seventeenth, seventeen eighty-seven, delegates to the
Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia met one last time to sign it.

They are riding very fast. Some horses seem to be without riders. But a
closer look shows that the men are hanging off the sides, or under the
horse’s neck. They are using the horses’ bodies as protection.

拉克代夫海岸的印第安人还富有高度发达的贸易系列。研讨人口开采,北美无处的印第安部落曾从事布满的物物沟通。

奥地利人是最早行动的。1400年的时候,他们就想调节跟东方的香料贸易。澳洲商贾想凌驾威金沙萨和阿拉伯的中间商,直接跟东方做专门的学业。假如他们能直接经海路前往澳洲购买这几个商品,就能够大大增加盈利。

大家要介绍美利坚合资国独立战斗的来因去果,讲述一批农民、商人和辩解人是哪些拟定United States行政诉讼法,以及1787年10月17号行政法大会代表在尼科西亚签订契约民法通则的传说。

她俩骑得赶快,有些马背上邻近并不曾人,仔细看才会意识,骑手都贴在马肚子上,或是挂在马脖子上边,用马的身子交配护。

VOICE TWO:

The leader of Portugal’s exploration efforts was Prince Henry, a son of
King John the first. He was interested in sea travel and exploration. So
he became known as Henry the Navigator.

We explain why that document is still extremely important today — and
not just to Americans. Other governments have used it as a guide to
creating a modern democracy.

The horses are painted with many different designs that use blue, black,
red or other colors. Later we learn that each design has a special
meaning for the man who owns the horse. Each one tells a story.

The first recorded meetings between Europeans and the natives of the
East Coast took place in the fifteen hundreds. Fishermen from France and
the Basque area of Spain crossed the Atlantic Ocean. They searched for
whales along the east coast of North America. They made temporary camps
along the coast. They often traded with the local Indians. The Europeans
often paid Indians to work for them. Both groups found this to be a
successful relationship.

葡萄牙共和国的探险努力是天子John一世的幼子Henley王子发起的。他心爱航海和探险,人称航海家Henley。

大家要解释美利坚合众国刑法为啥到现在照旧十二分入眼,成为众多国家建设当代民主的范本。

那个马的随身画着五彩缤纷的油画,后来大家才知道,每个图案有差异的情致,对马的主人有破例的意思。

欧洲人和北美南海岸印第安人里面第叁遍有记载的会师发生在十六世纪。当时,法国和西班牙王国(The Kingdom of Spain)Bath克地区的渔家横穿太平洋,在北美东边沿海地点寻找鲸鱼。他们在岸边架设一时营地,平日跟当地的印第安人交流货色,还雇他们干活,两方都觉着这种涉及挺不错。

Prince Henry brought experts to his country and studied the sciences
involved in exploration. He built an observatory to study the stars.
Portuguese sea captains led their ships around the west coast of Africa
hoping to find a path to India and East Asia. They finally found the end
of the African continent, the area called the Cape of Good Hope.

VOICE TWO:

For example, the man riding one horse is a leader during battle. Another
has killed an enemy in battle. One of the designs protects the horse and
rider.

Several times different groups of fishermen tried to establish a
permanent settlement on the coast, but the severe winters made it
impossible. These fishing camps were only temporary.

Henley王子在世界外市网罗专家,实行准确钻探。他还特意建造了多少个天文台,观测星盘。葡萄牙共和国(República Portuguesa)的探险家们到过欧洲西海岸,希望找到一条通往印度和东南亚的路线。他们最后达到了澳洲大陆的最南侧–好望角。

U.S. Constitution

比如,个中壹个人是应战总指挥,另贰个在交火中杀死过仇人,在那之中一种图案能保险马匹和骑手的平安。

南美洲捕鱼者也曾多次试图在本地创立永世性定居点,然而都归因于受不了冬辰的冰冷而以退步告终。

VOICE TWO:

U.S. Constitution

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

It took the Portuguese only about fifty years to take control of the
spice trade. They established trading colonies in Africa, the Persian
Gulf, India and China.

We explore why the writers of the Constitution included guarantees of
freedom of speech and religion, and the right to a fair and public
trial.

As they come nearer, the Shoshoni group sees that we are not ready for
war. They slow their horses but are still very careful. Merriwether
Lewis holds up a open hand as a sign of peace. The leader of the
Shoshoni does the same. They come closer.

The first permanent settlers in New England began arriving in sixteen
twenty. They wanted to live in peace with the Indians. They needed to
trade with them for food. The settlers also knew that a battle would
result in their own, quick defeat because they were so few in number.

Improvements in technology helped them succeed. One improvement was a
new kind of ship. It could sail more easily through ocean storms and
winds.

大家要剖析美利哥刑事诉讼法的起草者为何要把言论自由、宗教自由和承受公开公正审理的权利写进民事诉讼法里。

那几个肖肖尼骑手走近后,看到大家不象要打仗的轨范,于是放慢了脚步,但要么那多少个小心。Lewis举起八只手,以示和平。肖肖尼人的头儿也做出同样的手势,做出回应。两方继续靠拢。

1620年,亚洲的率先批恒久性居民来到了台英格兰地区。他们希望跟印第安人和平共处。他们须求从印第安人这里换取食品。他们还要也明白地领略,自身软弱,一旦发生争辩,根本不是印第安人的挑战者。

不久50年,葡萄牙共和国(República Portuguesa)就调节了香水贸易,他们在南美洲、亚速海、印度和九州确立了数不尽交易殖民地,科技(science and technology)的腾飞也帮了他们的大忙,包涵能够经受沙龙卷风的船舶、能够隔开大陆的指针等等。

We also talk about the reasons for the American Revolution. One of the
most important was the idea that citizens of a country should have a
voice in its decisions.

The Shoshoni are dressed in clothes made from animal skin. Most of these
skins are from deer or the American buffalo. The shirts they wear have
many designs, and tell stories like the designs on the horses. One shows
a man has fought in a battle. Another shows a man has been in many raids
to capture horses. Still another shows the man saved the life of a
friend.

Yet, problems began almost immediately. Perhaps the most serious was the
different way the American Indians and the Europeans thought about land.
This difference created problems that would not be solved during the
next several hundred years.

Other inventions like the compass permitted them to sail out of sight of
land. The Portuguese also armed their ships with modern cannon. They
used these weapons to battle Muslim and East Asian traders.

British citizens in the American colonies paid taxes but had no
representatives in the British Parliament. Taxation without
representation led to growing anger in the American colonies.

肖肖尼人穿着用兽皮做的衣服,多数是鹿皮或水牛皮。他们的羽绒服有区别的图腾,也可能有两样的情趣,能够显得有些人在场过战争、多次在座捕获马匹的偷袭行动,或是救过朋友的生命。

可是,十分的快,难题就不可防止地出现了。双方对土地的不如意见引起了巨大的区别,带来了跟着几百余年都爱莫能助消除的标题。

瑞典人还在船上装备了当代火炮,用来跟穆斯林和南亚生意人作战。

作者们还要探究United States独立战役的缘故。当时,美利哥殖民地上的United Kingdom全体成员纵然交税,但在U.K.议会里却从未表示席位。”纳税无代表”的景观引起了民愤。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

The leaders of the revolt made important changes. They decided that any
free citizen could be a candidate for public office. And they made sure
that all free men who owned land and paid taxes were permitted to vote.

Captain Lewis smiles at these men. He again makes a hand sign that means
peace. The signs are now returned. Lewis and the Shoshoni chief cannot
speak each other’s language. They can communicate using hand signs.

Land was extremely important to the European settlers. In England, and
most other countries, land meant wealth. Owning large amounts of land
meant a person had great wealth and political power.

The other European nations would not permit Portugal to control this
trade for long, however. Spain’s Queen Isabella and King Ferdinand
agreed to provide ships, crew and supplies for an exploration by an
Italian seaman, Christopher Columbus.

花旗国独立大战的头头们做出重大改动,规定凡是自由人都足以参预公职的公推,而且全数土地并且纳税的自由人都有权投票。

Lewis冲那个人笑笑,再一次做出和平的手势,肖肖尼人也做出同样的手势。Lewis和肖肖尼头领语言不通,但是能够通过手势进行调换。

对于澳洲定居者来讲,土地的要紧性非同一般。在英帝国等亚洲国度,土地代表财富,具备大批判土地能给一人带来巨大的财物和权力。

可是,别的南美洲国度并不想让西班牙人独霸香料贸易。西班牙(Reino de España)的伊莎Bellla王后和斐迪南圣上同意为意大利共和国航海家夏洛特的探险安顿提供船只、船员和供给物资。

Not until nineteen twenty did the Constitution give women the right to
vote. Later, another change lowered the voting age for Americans from
twenty-one to eighteen.

VOICE TWO:

Many of the settlers in this new country could never have owned land in
Europe. They were too poor. And they belonged to minority religious
groups. When they arrived in the new country, they discovered no one
seemed to own the huge amounts of land.

Columbus thought the shortest way to reach the East was to sail west
across the Atlantic Ocean. He was right. But he also was wrong. He
believed the world was much smaller than it is. He did not imagine the
existence of other lands and another huge ocean area between Europe and
East Asia.

但停止二十世纪二十年份,民事诉讼法才给予女子投票
权。后来的一项校订案又把U.S.际信资公司票的法定年龄从二十四虚岁降低到了18岁。

One young Shoshoni man comes near. He drops to the ground from his
horse. He is tall and looks strong. His hair is black in color and long.
He wears one long bird feather in the back of his hair. Some of his hair
is held in place by animal fur.

赶来北美陆地的繁多居民都是澳大克赖斯特彻奇的穷人,属于个别宗教派别,根本不容许有所协和的土地。他们赶到新陆地后,开掘此处的土地好像根本就从未有过主人。

麦德林认为,去东方的近便的小路是向南穿过印度洋。在那或多或少上他确实是科学的。但她同时也犯了二个错误,那正是,他设想中的地球要小得多。他从不想到还有别的大陆,也没悟出在南美洲和南亚里面还应该有另一片汪洋大海。

Our programs explain the thinking behind these and other rights. They
also tell the story of each presidential election and presidency in
American history.

七个年青的肖肖尼人解放下马,他身形高大强壮,留着长长的黑发,头发用兽皮绑着,头发前面还会有一根十分短的羽毛。

Companies in England needed to find people willing to settle in the new
country. So they offered land to anyone who would take the chance of
crossing the Atlantic Ocean. For many, it was a dream come true. It was
a way to improve their lives. The land gave them a chance to become
wealthy and powerful.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

His arms have been painted with long lines. We learn that each line
represents a battle. There are many lines. But we leave the Shoshoni
without him adding another one.

英帝国的集团索要吸引定居者到新陆地去,于是就用土地作为嘉勉。对于广大人的话,那活脱脱是梦想成真,成了她们转移生活的时机,土地让他们有的时候机积攒能源和权限。

Columbus and a crew of eighty-eight men left Spain on August third,
fourteen ninety-two, in three ships. On October twelfth, they stood on
land again on an island that Columbus named San Salvador.

THE MAKING OF A NATION explores the good and the bad in American
history. For example, how could slavery exist in a nation whose people
declared that “all men are created equal” and with a right to life,
liberty and the pursuit of happiness?

她的上肢上划着非常多长线,每条线意味着着一场战争。然而此番跟大家的蒙受,双方并不曾接触。

VOICE ONE:

武汉1492年4月3号教导着88名潜水员,开车着三艘探险船从西班牙(Reino de España)启程了。四月12号,他们到达了被马尔默命名字为圣Jose的地方。

建国史话并不躲避美利坚合众国历史上负面包车型地铁事物。举例说,在二个表明”人人生而平等”,有生活、自由和追求幸福的权利的国家里,怎么又会隐忍奴隶的留存呢?

VOICE ONE:

American Indians believed no person could own land. They believed,
however, that anyone could use it. Anyone who wanted to live on and grow
crops on a piece of land was able to do so.

He explored it, and the nearby islands of what is now known as Cuba and
Hispaniola. He believed they were part of the coast of East Asia, which
was called the Indies. He called the people he found there Indians.

Many programs tell about the ideas and issues that have shaped the
United States. But most importantly, they tell about the people.

The Shoshoni were only one of many tribes of native people who lived in
the Great Plains area. The life, culture and society of these tribes
developed because of the land that was their home.

可是,美洲的印第安人却感到,土地不属于任何人,是大家齐声分享的能源。他们感觉,任何人都得以在一片土地上住下去,种庄稼,以此养家糊口。

他对该地包罗古巴和伊斯帕尼奥拉在内的小岛进行了调查,最终确认那是东南亚海岸的一部分,并称其为
Indies, 印度群岛,称这里的居民为印第安人。

建国史话首要讲的是美利坚合营国全体公民。

(大家在前三个时辰的建国史话中讲到了Lewis和Clark的探险队第二回相遇土著部落–肖肖尼人的情景。)其实,肖肖尼人只是大平原上好些个土著部落中的三个。那一个群众体育的生活、文化和社会形态都包括大平原的表征。

The American Indians lived within nature. They lived very well without
working very hard. They were able to do this because they understood the
land and their environment. They did not try to change the land.

Columbus left about forty men on the island to build a fort from the
wood of one of the ships. He returned to Spain with captured natives,
birds, plants and gold. Columbus was considered a national hero when he
reached Spain in March, fourteen ninety-three.

George Washington

The Great Plains today is still huge. Even in a car, traveling at one
hundred kilometers an hour, it can take two long days of driving to
cross the Great Plains. The plains reach from several hundred kilometers
north in Canada across the middle of the continent to Mexico in the
south. In the East, the Great Plains begin near the Mississippi River
and go west to the huge Rocky Mountains. It is the center of the United
States.

印第安人活着在宇宙空间里,精晓土地和四周的遭受,并不想退换大自然。他们并非太费事就会生存得很好。

夏洛特在那里留下44人,让他们用个中一艘船上拆下来的木头建筑二个城市建设,他则带着捕获的土著居民,禽鸟、植物和黄金再次来到了西班牙王国。他1493年一月赶回西班牙(Reino de España)时,成了国家铁汉。

George Washington

以致到今后天,大平原仍旧广大,就算是坐在时速100公里的车里,要穿越大平原也要全套两日的小运。大平原北起加拿大,南抵墨西哥,东靠俄亥俄河,西至落基山脉,是美利哥的中坚地段。

They might farm in an area for a few years. Then they would move on.
They permitted the land on which they had farmed to become wild again.
They might hunt on one area of land for some time, but again they would
move on. They hunted only what they could eat, so the numbers of animals
continued to increase. The Indians understood nature and made it work
for them.

VOICE ONE:

For example, George Washington was a farmer before he became a military
commander. He became president because the citizens of the new country
wanted him as their first leader.

There are big rivers here, deserts and mountains. Other areas are so
flat that a person can see for hundreds of kilometers. Millions of
kilometers of this land were once covered by a thick ocean of grass.

不管是农耕照旧狩猎,他们每过几年就能够换多少个地方,让土地有机遇休耕,让动物的数额得以继承追加。印第安人耳闻则诵自然生态规律,让大自然为协和劳动。

Columbus returned across the Atlantic Ocean to the Caribbean area five
months later. This time, he had many more men and all the animals and
equipment needed to start a colony on Hispaniola. He found that the
protective fort built by his men had been destroyed by fire. Columbus
did not find any of his men.

After two terms, he gave up power by his own choice. He once again
became a farmer and a private citizen. In his farewell address in
seventeen ninety-six, he warned Americans about the dangers of political
parties.

大平原上有河流、沙漠、山脉,别的的地方则是开阔的草坪。

VOICE TWO:

3个月后,沈阳再度横穿印度洋,来到德雷克海峡,他这一次不只有带来了更加多的人工、还拉动了各个动物和装置,要在伊斯帕尼奥拉群岛创建二个债权国。到了后头才开采,他下令修筑的城墙已经被温火烧光,留下的肆十四个人踪影全无。

举个例子,United States立国管辖乔治·华盛顿领导独立大战以前是农场主,卫冕两届总统后,他积极放弃权力,又重返做他的农场主。他在1796
年的拜别演讲里,对美利坚联邦合众国政府政治的权利险提出了警戒。

VOICE TWO:

The first Europeans to settle in New England in the northeastern part of
America were few in number. They wanted land. The Indians did not fear
them. There was enough land for everyone to use and plant crops. It was
easy to live together. The Indians helped the settlers by teaching them
how to plant crops and survive on the land.

Seven months later, Columbus sent five ships back to Spain. They carried
Indians to be sold as slaves. Columbus also sailed back to Spain leaving
behind some settlers who were not happy with conditions.

Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. It told the
world that the people of this new country would no longer answer to a
European ruler.

The grass provided food for an animal that made possible the culture of
the Indians of the Great Plains. The grass fed the bison, the American
buffalo. The buffalo was the center of native Indian culture in the
Great Plains.

在嘉义爱尔兰地区安家落户的率先批澳洲人数量有限。他们心弛神往得到土地。由于土地能源丰硕,所以印第安人对此并不忧虑,双方还行和谐相处。印第安人还教会了欧洲移民耕种和生存的技巧。

八个月后,台中派五艘船舶重返西班牙王国(The Kingdom of Spain),并带回部分印第安人,作为奴隶卖掉。奥兰多后来也回到西班牙王国(The Kingdom of Spain),留下一些人落户,不过这么些人对本土的规则很不乐意。

VOICE TWO:

绿地养肥了红牛,水牛是大平原土著印第安人文化的中央因素。

But the Indians did not understand that the settlers were going to keep
the land. This idea was foreign to the Indians. It was like to trying to
own the air, or the clouds.

Christopher Columbus made another trip in fourteen ninety-eight, with
six ships. This time he saw the coast of South America. The settlers
were so unhappy with conditions in the new colony, Columbus was sent
back to Spain as a prisoner. Spain’s rulers pardoned him.

www.463.com,Abraham Lincoln

The huge animal provided meat for the Indians. But it was much more than
just food. It was an important part of the religion of most of the
native people in the Great Plains.

印第安人没有想到的是,亚洲定居者要把土地据有,对他们来讲,那是神乎其神的,就类似要占用空气和云朵同样出乎意料。

1498年,沈阳再度带领六艘船舶踏上了道路。他这一次来到了澳洲海岸。然而居民对新殖民地极其不满,他们把埃德蒙顿作为囚犯送回西班牙王国,最终还是西班牙(Spain)的统治者赦免了她。

Abraham Lincoln

水牛不止为印第安人提供了食品,也是大平原地区大部印第安人事教育派的入眼部分。

As the years passed, more and more settlers arrived, and took more and
more land. They cut down trees. They built fences to keep people and
animals out. They demanded that the Indians stay off their land.

In fifteen-oh-two, Columbus made his final voyage to what some were
calling the New World. He stayed on the island of Jamaica until he
returned home in fifteen-oh-four.

Some of the people who formed the United States into a nation during the
seventeen hundreds were well educated and wealthy. Abraham Lincoln was
not. Still, he grew up to become president.

The Lakota tribe is one of the people of the Great Plains. The Lakota
are sometimes called the Sioux. They believed that everything necessary
to life was within the buffalo. Another Plains tribe, the Blackfeet,
called the animal “My home and my protection.”

物换星移,踏上北美大洲的亚洲居民不断增加,他们占用的土地也尤为多。他们砍伐树木,搭起围栏,把客人和猛兽挡在外围,并需要印第安人不用侵略他们的土地。

1502年,马普托实现了最后一回新陆地的探险。他登上了牙买加岛,后来在1504年回到西班牙王国(The Kingdom of Spain)。

美利坚同盟军广大开国元勋都以有钱人,受过卓绝教育,但美利坚合众国南北战役之间的管辖Lincoln却绝不出生在全部的家中。

苏人印第安部落就相信,凡是生活必须品,都能从红牛的随身找到。其它二个印第安人群众体育把白牛称做“笔者的家和衣食父母。”

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

Abraham Lincoln became president during the eighteen sixties when
several southern states decided they no longer wanted to be part of the
United States. We tell how President Lincoln dealt with the terrible
Civil War that almost split the country apart.

VOICE ONE:

Religion was another problem between the settlers and the Indians. The
settlers in New England were very serious about their Christian
religion. They thought it was the one true faith and all people should
believe in it. They soon learned that the Indians were not interested in
learning about it or changing their beliefs.

During all his trips, Columbus explored islands and waterways, searching
for a passage to the Indies. He never found it. He also did not find
spices or great amounts of gold. Yet, he always believed that he had
found the Indies. He refused to recognize that it was really a new
world.

她十九世纪六十时代任职时期,北部的多少个州决定脱离出来,差不离儿产生国家的分化,大家要温故知新Lincoln是什么样管理本场国内大战的。

The back of the huge buffalo provided thick skin that was used to make
homes for the Plains Indians. Other parts were made into clothing. Still
other parts became warm blankets. Buffalo bones were made into tools.
Nothing of the animal was wasted.

亚洲移民和北美印第安人中间的此外一大难题出在宗教上。在高雄爱尔兰安家落户的亚洲人都是开诚相见的基督徒。他们视佛教为唯一的信教,认为全数人都应有信仰基督。可是他们发觉,印第安人对道教并不感兴趣,也不希图改换自身的迷信。

在反复探险中,哥伦布不断追寻通往印度群岛的航程,然则,他不只未有找到那条航空线,同卓殊间也不曾找到黄金和香精。固然如此,他一味坚信自身找到了印度群岛,拒绝确认她找到的骨子里是三个新陆地。

VOICE ONE:

牛背上厚厚的皮能够用来做帐篷,其余部分的皮能够做衣服和毯子,牛骨头可以做工具,奶牛身上的任啥地方方都不会被浪费掉。

Many settlers came to believe that Native Americans could not be trusted
because they were not Christians. The settler groups began to fear the
Indians. They thought of the Indians as a people who were evil because
they had no religion. The settlers told the Indians they must change and
become Christians. The Indians did not understand why they should change
anything.

Evidence of this was all around him — strange plants that were not
known in either Europe or Asia and a different people who did not
understand any language spoken in the East.

One of our programs deals with a speech he gave in the little town of
Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. A great battle had been fought there.
President Lincoln had been asked to come to Gettysburg to say a few
words at the dedication of a military burial place.

No one knows how many buffalo were in North America when Merriwether
Lewis first met the Shoshoni. But experts say it was probably between
sixty million to seventy-five million.

诸多亚洲居民因而认为,既然印第安人不是耶教徒,那他们就不值得依赖。欧洲居民以为,印第安人未有宗教信仰,所以是邪恶的人群。

其实,证据都以明摆着的,这里稀奇的植物都以澳大内罗毕(Australia)和澳大昆明联邦(Commonwealth of Australia)尚未的,这里人对东方的言语也是蒙昧。

作者们将要节目中牵线Lincoln知名的盖茨堡阐述。

一直不人通晓,刘易斯蒙受肖肖尼人的时候,北美陆上上终归有稍许头白牛,专家预计或许有4000万到7000五百万头左右。

VOICE TWO:

Columbus’ voyages, however, opened up the new world. Others later
explored all of North America.

The speech was short. President Lincoln honored the young men who had
died on that bloody battlefield. He also told the world why the terrible
war was being fought and why it was so important.

VOICE TWO:

The European settlers failed to understand that the Native American
Indians were extremely religious people with a strong belief in unseen
powers. The Indians lived very close to nature. They believed that all
things in the universe depend on each other. All native tribes had
ceremonies that honored a creator of nature. American Indians recognized
the work of the creator of the world in their everyday life.

莱比锡即便未有找到印度群岛,但他却为后来者展开了向阳新世界的大门。

“Four score and seven years ago, our fathers brought forth on this
continent a new nation, conceived in liberty, and dedicated to the
proposition that all men are created equal.”

Another animal also helped make possible the Indian cultures of the
Great Plains. Native Americans first called these animals mystery dogs,
or big dogs. They had no word for this animal in their language. We know
it as the horse.

亚洲居民不领悟的是,美洲土著人居民实际是极其诚恳的,他们相信无形的佛祖。他们生活在大自然中,相信宇宙万物相互依存,全部部落都有向宇宙的创建者祈福的仪仗,他们在日常生活中总会看到宇宙创制者留下的印迹。

VOICE ONE:

发言一上来是,”八十七年前,大家的大伯在那些新大陆上创办了叁个新江山,它孕育于自由之中,施行人人生而同样的标准。”

其它一种动物也对大平原印第安部落的知识起到了关键成效。当时的本地人印第安人把这种动物叫做大狗,其实她们说的就是马。

VOICE ONE:

You may be wondering about the name of this new land. If Christopher
Columbus was the first European to attempt to settle the new world, why
is it called “America”? The answer lies with the name of an Italian
explorer, Amerigo Vespucci.

Those words were just the first sentence. After President Lincoln wrote
the speech, he felt sad. He considered it a failure. In fact, his words
earned the respect of history. You can hear the full Gettysburg Address
in our programs about the life and presidency of Abraham Lincoln.

No horses existed in North America before the Spanish arrived in the
fifteen hundreds in what is now the southern part of the United States.
Native peoples hunted, moved and traveled by foot. Traveling long
distances was difficult, so was hunting buffalo.

Other events also led to serious problems between the Native Americans
and the settlers. One serious problem was disease. The settlers brought
sickness with them from Europe. For example, the disease smallpox was
well known in Europe. Some people carried the bacteria that caused
smallpox, although they did not suffer the sickness itself.

您大概会感觉意外,既然苏州是首先个试图在美洲落户的澳大奥马哈(Australia)探险家,那片大陆为何又叫America呢?其实,美洲是以意国探险家阿米国·韦斯普奇的名字命名的。

Lincoln写完那篇演讲稿后,认为很伤感,以为写得很退步,可是那篇讲话却经住了历史的考验,平素盛传到今天。

匈牙利人十六世纪来到前天的美利哥南边在此以前,北美大洲上本来未有马。土著印第安人都以徒步走狩猎和行进的,远涉重洋十二分麻烦,更毫不说捕猎红牛了。

疾病也给澳洲移民和美洲印第安人带来了摩擦。南美洲移民把天花等及时亚洲广泛的疾病带到了美洲陆上。

He visited the coast of South America in fourteen ninety-nine. He wrote
stories about his experiences that were widely read in Europe.

VOICE TWO:

The horse greatly changed the life of all the people of the Great
Plains. It gave them a method of travel. It provided a way to carry food
and equipment. It made it easier and safer to follow and hunt the
buffalo. The horse made it possible to attack an enemy far away and
return safely. The number of horses owned became the measure of a
tribe’s wealth.

Smallpox was unknown to Native Americans. Their bodies’ defense systems
could not fight against smallpox. It killed whole tribes. And, smallpox
was only one such disease. There were many others.

他1499年到过南美海岸,后来撰文的见闻录在亚洲盛传。

THE MAKING OF A NATION touches on many different subjects. One of them
is social change. For example, we tell about the changes that took place
in the nineteen twenties, known as the Roaring Twenties.

马的面世彻底更换了他们的生活,给他们提供了直通和平运动送的便利,也让追踪和狩猎白牛变得进一步简明了。有了马,印第安人就能够对海外的大敌发动进攻,然后安全回到。具备马匹的数目,一度成为衡量部落能源的标准。

那一个病毒是美洲土著人居民根本都没听别人讲过的,他们的免疫系统完全未有招架技术,大多群众体育被污染后,死得三个不剩。

In fifteen-oh-seven, a German mapmaker read Vespucci’s stories. He
decided that the writer had discovered the new world and suggested that
it be called America in his honor. So it was.

Many young people decided they no longer needed to follow the
conservative traditions of their parents and grandparents. This was the
age of jazz.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

1507年,壹人德意志联邦共和国制图家阅读了韦斯普奇的见闻录,感到他意识的是一片新陆地,并提出用他的名字对新陆地进行命名。由此就有了America.

开国史话涉及United States野史的全部,个中三个要害领域是社会的变革。比如,大家要介绍二十世纪二十年份所谓”喧闹的二十时代”,那时候,繁多年轻人感觉本身不要再根据父母、祖父母保守的守旧思想了,那也是爵士时代。

Spanish settlers rode horses to the small town of Santa Fe in what is
now the southwestern state of New Mexico. They arrived there in about
the year sixteen-oh-nine.

The first meetings between settlers and Native Americans were the same
in almost every European settlement on the East Coast of America. The
two groups met as friends. They would begin by trading for food and
other goods.

VOICE TWO:

VOICE ONE:

西班牙(Spain)定居者大概在1609年的时候骑马到了先天美利哥东西部新墨西哥州的小镇圣菲。

北美新大陆南部沿海外地的澳洲移民和印第安人涉嫌的开发进取一模二样。他们一初始都能和谐相处,调换种种物资。

Spanish explorers sought to find gold and power in the New World. They
also wanted to expand belief in what they considered to be the true
religion, Christianity.

But music and social values were not the only things changing. The
Roaring Twenties were also a time of fast-moving economic change.
Productivity grew sharply. At the same time, the divide between rich and
poor Americans grew wider.

It is not known how native peoples in Santa Fe got the first horses in
the country. Perhaps they traded for them. Perhaps they captured them in
an attack. Many tribes soon were trading and capturing horses.

In time, however, something would happen to cause a crisis. Perhaps a
settler would demand that an Indian stay off the settler’s land. Perhaps
a settler, or Indian, was killed. Fear would replace friendship. One
side or the other would answer what they believed was an attack. A good
example of this is the violent clash called King Philip’s War.

西班牙(Spain)探险家不止准备在新陆地搜索黄金和权力,还期待扩充他们心坎中真的的宗派–伊斯兰教—的影响力。

非常时代的变迁并不局限于音乐和社会价值理念,”喧闹的二十年间”同时也是占低价巨变的一世,生产成效显著加强,贫富分裂也日益严重。

从不人领略,圣菲的土著居民是怎么得到第一匹马的,恐怕他们是用东西换的,只怕是鼓动进攻抢来的。主要的是,没过多短期,诸多印第安部落都起来购销和破获马匹了。

而是随着时间的推迟,风险迟早会产生,要么是有个别亚洲移民供给印第安人并非踏上她的土地,要么是某些澳大汉诺威居民或是有些印第安人被残杀,使恐惧逐步替代了友谊,当中一方会以为受到了对方的袭击,并奋起反扑,历史上的“Philip王大战”正是三个很好的事例。

The first of these Spanish explorers was Juan Ponce de Leon. He landed
on North America in fifteen thirteen. He explored the eastern coast of
what is now the southern state of Florida. He was searching for a
special kind of water that people in Europe believed existed. They
believed that this water could make old people young again. Ponce de
Leon never found it.

By the end of the Roaring Twenties, the economy was ready to collapse.
Then, in October of nineteen twenty-nine, the stock market crashed. What
followed was an economic disaster worse than any the modern world has
ever known.

By the seventeen fifties, all the tribes of the Great Plains had horses.
They had become experts at raising, training and riding horses. They
became experts at horse medicine.

VOICE ONE:

1513年,西班牙王国探险家庞塞·德Leon达到北美新大陆,到今日放在美利坚合众国佛罗里辽阳南方的地方找找能令人返老还童的泉水,然则未有找到。

到”喧闹的二十时代”
甘休前,美国经济早已走到了崩溃的边缘。1930年三月,股票商场崩盘,引发了大萧条–今世社会最沉痛的三回经济灾殃。

到1750年间的时候,大平原上的有着部落都有了马,而且那些印第安人成了喂养、操练和骑马的行家。

Matacom was a leader of the Wampanoag tribe that lived in the
northern-most colonies. He was known to the English as King Philip.
Without the help of his tribe, the first European settlers in that area
might not have survived their first winter. The Wampanoag Indians
provided them with food. They taught the settlers how to plant corn and
other food crops. The two groups were very friendly for several years.

VOICE ONE:

We examine the causes of the Great Depression and how it affected
Americans and the rest of the world. We tell the story of people who
lost their jobs, their homes and their hope for the future.

Each Indian of the Great Plains could ride a horse by the age of five.
As an adult, a young man would have a special horse for work. Another
horse would be trained for hunting. And another would be trained for
war. An Indian warrior’s success depended upon how closely he and his
horses worked together.

马塔卡姆是万帕诺亚格部落的首领,葡萄牙人称她为“Philip王”。第一堆亚洲居民完全都以靠了万帕诺亚格部落的扶植,才走过了第多少个二之日。万帕诺亚格部落向欧洲定居者提供食品,还教会她们栽种玉米,双方协和相处了少数年。

Also in fifteen thirteen, Vasco Nunez de Balboa crossed the Isthmus of
Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean. In fifteen nineteen, Hernan Cortes
landed an army in Mexico and destroyed the empire of the Aztec Indians.

VOICE TWO:

大平原地区的印第安人,四岁学骑马,长大之后,每一种年轻人都有好几匹马,分别用于职业、狩猎和作战。多个印第安硬汉的中标在不小程度上要在于他和他的坐骑的精心合作。

As the years passed, however, fear and a lack of understanding
increased. Matacom’s brother died of a European disease. Matacom blamed
the settlers. He also saw how the increasing numbers of settlers were
changing the land. He believed they were destroying it.

同样是在1513年,巴尔沃亚穿过巴拿马(Panama)地峡,到达印度洋。1519年,Cole特斯率军登入墨西哥,摧毁了阿兹特克印第安王国。

Franklin Roosevelt was elected with a promise to bring the country out
of the Depression. On March fourth, nineteen thirty-three, he was
inaugurated to his first of four terms. He served longer than any other
president in American history. We discuss Roosevelt’s New Deal programs
and his leadership during World War Two.

VOICE TWO:

不过好景十分的短,互相间的担惊受怕和缺点和失误精通比比皆是。马塔卡姆的兄弟死于一种亚洲疾病,马塔卡姆感觉那都以亚洲人的错。他还观摩了居民给土地带来的变通,感到他们是在摧毁那片土地。

That same year Ferdinand Magellan began his three-year voyage around the
world. And in the fifteen thirties, Francisco Pizarro destroyed the Inca
Indian empire in Peru.

弗兰克林·罗斯福选举总统时,承诺要教导U.S.A.走出大萧条。一九三四年二月4号,罗斯福宣誓就职,后来成为United States野史上任期最长的一个人总统。大家要介绍有名的罗斯福新政的内容,以及他在第三回世界战役中公布的首长效应。

George Catlin was an artist who traveled a great deal in the early
American west. He painted many beautiful pictures of American Indians.
Mister Catlin said the Plains Indian was the greatest horse rider the
world has ever known. He said the moment an Indian rider laid a hand on
his horse he became part of the animal.

VOICE TWO:

同年,麦哲伦开头了他为期三年的五洲之旅。十六世纪三十年间,Pizarro摧毁了秘鲁(Peru)的印加印第安人帝国。

But not all of the subjects on THE MAKING OF A NATION are so serious. We
also look at the history of American popular culture and subjects like
the rise of high technology. Something for everyone.

卡森林是U.S.最初美术大师,他到过西方的繁多地点,画了过多形容印第安人的作品,据他说,大平原上的印第安人是世界上最优秀的骑手,印第安人把手放在马身上的刹那间,就和马融为一体了。

One small crisis after another led to the killing of a Christian Indian
who lived with the settlers. The settlers answered this by killing three
Indians. A war quickly followed. It began in sixteen seventy-five and
continued for almost two years. It was an extremely cruel war. Men,
women and children on both sides were killed. Researchers believe more
than six hundred settlers were killed. They also say as many as three
thousand Native Americans died in the violence.

VOICE TWO:

可是,建国史话也不全部是体面的话题。大家也要回溯美利坚同盟友文化的野史调换。

VOICE ONE:

双方间危害持续发出,一名跟定居者住在一齐的印第安基督徒被杀,这成了最后的导火索。欧洲居民发起还击,打死多个印第安人。战斗一触即发,从1675年发轫,持续了接近两年。这场战乱最棒凶残,两方都有诸五人被打死。研商人口以为,先后一共有第六百货四个澳大安拉阿巴德(Australia)定居者被打死,还大概有多达贰仟名美洲土著人居民在争辩中身亡。

Ten years later, Francisco Vasquez de Coronado had marched as far north
as the central American state of Kansas and west to the Grand Canyon.
About the same time, Hernan de Soto reached the Mississippi River. Fifty
years after Columbus first landed in San Salvador, Spain claimed a huge
area of America.

VOICE ONE:

The buffalo and horse were extremely important to the Plains Indian.
Because the horse made hunting easier, more time could be spent on
things like art. The Plains Indians began to make designs on their
clothing, and on special blankets their horses wore. Even common objects
were painted with designs.

VOICE ONE:

十年后,科罗纳多一贯走到今天U.S.A.之中内布拉斯加州和西方的大山沟地点。大概同期,德索托到了北卡罗来纳河。巴尔的摩在金奈登录的五十年后,英国人一度到过了美洲陆地的大片地区。

Today’s news is not only tomorrow’s history, it will also become part of
THE MAKING OF A NATION.

白牛和马匹对大平原地区的印第安人来讲根本,马的出现简化了狩猎工作,让印第安人能把越来越多的小时用于美化生活,他们开端在服装和马用的毯子上设计图案,纵然是最常用的货品上也油不过生了美术设计。

History experts say the tribe of Indians called the Narraganset were the
true victims of King Philip’s War. The Narraganset were not involved in
the war. They did not support one group or the other. However, the
settlers killed almost all the Narraganset Indians because they had
learned to fear all Indians.

The riches of these new lands made Spain the greatest power in Europe.
But other nations refused to accept Spain’s claim to rights in the new
world. Explorers from England, France and Holland also were traveling to
North America. That will be our story next week.

明日的音讯不仅仅是前几日的野史,也会化为建国史话的一有个别。

VOICE TWO:

历文学家说,纳拉干西特印第安人才是Philip王大战真正的被害人。他们并不曾卷入战祸,也平素不匡助战斗的任何一方,不过,南美洲居民因为出于对印第安人的害怕,大约杀死了有着纳拉干西特人。

新陆地的财富增添了西班牙(Reino de España)在亚洲的势力,可是任何国家拒绝确认西班牙(Spain)对新陆地的制伏。英国、高卢鸡和荷兰王国的探险家也混乱起身,踏上了前往东美新大陆的道路。

But for now, we start again from the beginning. I’m Shirley Griffith.

The coming of white settlers to the Great Plains was the beginning of
the end of the buffalo and horse culture of the American Indians.
Settlers did not want buffalo destroying their crops. The buffalo were
killed. By the year eighteen eighty-five, the Indians of the Great
Plains were mostly restricted to area of land called reservations.

This fear, lack of understanding and the failure to compromise were not
unusual. They strongly influenced the European settlers relations with
Native Americans in all areas of the new country.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

白种定居者的来临,标识着美洲印第安人红牛和马匹知识的扫尾。定居者不期望水牛破坏他们的庄稼,于是从头宰杀水牛。到了1885年的时候,大平原地区的印第安人民代表大会半都曾经被赶来了封存地上居住。

幸亏这种恐惧、缺少了解和不愿妥胁的周旋心思,营造了美洲陆上上欧洲居民跟土著印第安人的涉及。

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Nancy Steinbach and
produced by Paul Thompson. This is Rich Kleinfeldt.

And I’m Steve Ember. Join us at this time next week and every week as we
go back in time. Listen on radio or online at www.unsv.com as we bring
you THE MAKING OF A NATION in VOA Special English.

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

VOICE TWO:

Many of the Great Plains tribes that survive today work hard to keep
their traditional cultures. They produce art, music, and clothing. They
keep alive the memory of these people who added greatly to the history
of America.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written and produced by Paul
Thompson. This is Ray Freeman.

And this is Sarah Long. Join us again next week for another Special
English program about the history of the United States.

过多后续现今的群体都在想尽保留本人的历史观文化,他们经过艺术、音乐和服装,让对美洲历史做出过重大进献的自身祖辈的文化流传下去。

VOICE ONE:

VOICE TWO:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

This MAKING OF A NATION program was written by Paul Thompson. This is
Sarah Long.

VOICE ONE:

And this is Rich Kleinfeldt. Join us again next week for another VOA
Special English program about the history of the United States.

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